Xadaaradaha Ay Reer Galbeedku Ka Dheegteen Muslimiinta

53
1871

(Geeska)- Majallad Zeit oo ka soo baxda dalka Jarmalka ayaa soo bandhigtay qoraal dheer oo ay kaga warramayso xadaaradaha iyo horumarka asal ahaan ka yimi Muslimiinta ee ay reer galbeedku ka faa’idaysteen. Qormadan oo ay majaladdu kaga warrantay xidhiidhka Islaamka iyo qaaradda Yurub iyo weliba 1300 oo sano oo ay sheegtay in qaaradda Yurub iyo diinta Islaamku ay wax yaabo badan wadaagayeen.

Majaladda ZEIT oo ka warranta arrimaha hiddaha iyo dhaqanka ah inta badanna ay aad u akhristaan dadka Hal-doorka iyo aqoonyahanka ah ee Jarmalka ayaa soo bandhigay farsamooyinka iyo cilmiada muhiimka ah ee hadda lagu majeerto reer galbeedka bals ay tahay in dunida reer galbeedku ay abaal ugu hayaan Muslimiinta oo marka hore ay iyaga ka soo qaateen.  Waxaana ka mid ah:

Khadka iyo tirada Eber (0):

Majaladda ZEIT waxa ay qormadeedan ku bilowday, haddii farsamada iyo hawl-fudaydiyaasha hadda jiraa ay jiri lahaayeen kun sano ka hor, ikhtiraaca fikirka Kombiyuutarku waxa uu ka curan lahaa guriga Xikmadda ee Baqdaad, ee meel kale lagama filan kareen” Waxa ay ZEIT sheegtay in qarnigii 19 aad ee miilaadiga ay xarunta cilmiga ee Beyt Alxikma oo magaalada Baqdaad ka jirtay xubno ka ahaayeen khubaro iyo ehli cilmigii xulka ahaa ee Carabta, kuwaas oo kaalin weyn ka qaatay horumarinta cilmiga iyo aqoonta aadamaha oo ay gaadhsiiyeen heer aad u sarreeya.

ZEIT waxa ay tilmaamtay in culimadii Baqdaad ay kaalin hoggaamineed ku lahaayeen aasaasidda Cilmiga aljebra ee xisaabaadka iyaga oo isticmaalaya hawlgallo xisaabeed oo ay u marayaan qaacidooyin aan hortood jirin, hababkaas oo ay markii dambe sii dheegteen khubaradii cilmiga ee qaaradda Yurub. Sidoo kale Yurub waa in ay abaal ugu hayso culimadaa Muslimiinta fadliga helidda ama ikhtiraacidda lambarka eber oo ay muslimiintu markii ugu horreysay u aqoonsadeen in uu ka mid noqdo tirada. Faa’idada ay keentay aragtida ay khubaradaa muslimka ahi ku curiyeen in Eber loo aqoonsado tiro ayaa ah in qoraalkii tirade uu soo gaabtay iyo in ay fududaatay hawshii xisaabinta oo xilligaa waxii ka horreeyey reer Yurub ay isticmaali jireen tiro aad u badan.

Tusaale ahaan halka ay khubarada muslimku ka dhigeen in tiradu eber ka bilaabato oo ay 9 joogsato, kadibna tobankaa lambar dib isugu soo noqdaan, sida 11, 12… 100 IWM khubarada Yurub iyagu waxa ay isticmaali jireen tirooyin aad u badan oo aan isku soo noqonayn taas oo ay adkayd barashadeeda iyo xisaabinteeda labadaba.

Majaladda ZEIT waxa ay qoraalkeedan dheer ku tidhi, “Heliddii lambarka EBER waxa uu ahaa kacaan weyn oo cilmiga xisaabta casriyeeyey, raadkiisuna uu soo gaadhay Yurub” Mar ay ZEIT ka warramaysay habka uu cilmigaasi ku soo gaadhay Yurub waxa ay sheegtay in dabayaaqadii qarnigii 10aad ee miilaadiga uu cilmigaa soo qaaday baadarigii Vatican haystay ee Pope Sylvester I oo isagu lambarka EBER ee markaa cusbaa iyo guud ahaanba cilmiga xisaabta ku  soo bartay Carabi xilligii uu wax ka baranayey magaalada Qurduba ee Andulus.

Laba qarni kadib markii xisaabtani ay soo baxday ayuu Robert von Chester oo ahaa caalim ku xeel dheer cilmiga xisaabta oo u dhashay dalka Ingiriisku uu luuqadda Laatiniga ku  turjumay aragtidan xisaabeed iyo guud ahaan qoraallada uu sameeyey Al-Khwarizmi oo ahaa khabiirkii muslimka ahaa ee iska lahaa curinta xisaabta Aljebra. Chester waxa uu xisaabtan u turjumay si loogu dhigo jaamacadaha Yurub xilligaa ka jiray.

Muraayadaha:

Majaladda ZEIT oo weli sii wadda cilmiyada iyo farsamooyinka ay culimadii seeska u dhigay cilmiga reer Yurub, in ay sidoo kale cilmiga furaha u ahaa samaynta muraayadda indhaha lagu qaato ee aragga caawisa ka soo dheegteen cilmigii laga dhaxlay muslimka.

Giriiggii hore waxaa waqti aad u dheer ka qaatay in ay jawaabo u helaan su’aalo ay ka mid ahaayeen sida uu cilmi ahaan araggu u dhaco. Caalimkii muslimka ahaa ee Al-Xasan Ibn Al-Haytham ayaa qarniyo su’aashaasi taagnayd kadib soo baxay oo furfuray masaladaa hal-xidhaalaha noqotay, kadib markii uu cilmi ahaan helay in shayga aragtidiisu ay ku timaaddo natiijada fallaadho ka soo baxaya isha oo marka ay shayga ku dhacaan uu shaygu dib u celinayo ishii, fallaadhahaa  (Ilays-celin) shayga ka soo noqday ayaa gaadha shabakadda aragga, si uu raadkooda oo noqonaya muuqaalka shaygii uu araggu ku samaysmay, uu ugu sawirmo maskaxda.

Ibn Al-Haytham waxa uu ikhtiraaciisan cilmi qoray qarnigii tobnaad ee Miilaadiga oo uu ku qoray kitaabkiisii carabida lagu odhan jiray, “Almanaadir” Sannadkii 1572-kii miilaadiga ayaana kitaabkaas ay khubaradii reer Yurub u turjumeen luuqadda Laatiiniga iyaga oo ugu magac daray, kaydkaaragyada. Cilmiga qoraalkaa iyo ikhtiraacaa Ibn Al-Haytham laga dheegtay ayaana bilow u ahaa soo saaridda muraayaddii ugu horreysay ee aragga oo soo baxday qarniyadii dhexe. Al-Haytham ayaa loo qirsan yahay in uu yahay hormuudka manhajka cilmiga casriga ah ee hadda ay dunidu ku caano maashay. Wax yaabaha cilmiyadii uu ikhtiraacay laga soo dheegtayna waxaa ka mid ah noocyada kamaradaha sawirka ee loo yaqaanno Pinhole cameras, ama lagu naanayso Darkroom cameras.

Cilmiyada kale ee reer Yurub ay ka soo dheegteen Ibn Al-Haytham waxaa ka mid ahaa cilmiga lagu curiyey, quraaradda weynaysada.

Qasabadda:

Majaladda ZEIT oo caan ka ah Yurub waxa kale oo ay qoraalkeedan ku sheegaysaa in farsamada samaynta qasabaduhu ay si aad ah xidhiidh ula leedahay xadaaradihii Islaamiga ahaa. Majaladda oo arrintan kala hadlaysa dadka reer Yurub ee aan muslimka ahayn, waxa ay tidhi, “Xeerarka nadaafadda jidhkeena iyo daryeelkiisa waxa aynu kaga dayanay muslimiinta” arrintan oo ah qiraal aad u muhiim ah waxa ay majaladdu ku sii dartay, “Halka uu qarniyadii dhexe galbeedka Masiixiga ahi ka fogaa nadaafadda, marka la eego magaalooyinkii dhinaca bariga ee Muslimka waxaa ka jiray boqolaal xamaam oo la isku nadiifiyo. Waayo nadaafadda iyo is-daahirintu waxa ay iyaga (Muslimka) u ahayd dardaaran Alle” waxa kale oo ay majaladdu sheegtay in markii ugu horreysay kun sano ka hor saabuunta la isku nadiifiyo oo ka samaysan saliid Saytuun iyo dambas laga ikhtiraacay dunida muslimka”

Qalabka waraabka:

Majaladda ZIET waxa ay qoraalkeedan qiimaha badan ku sheegtay in qarnigii 13aad uu farsamoyaqaan (Injineer) muslim ah oo lagu magacaabi jiray Aljazri uu ikhtiraacay qalab yar oo soo saaraya biyo gacmaha lagu dhaqdo. Qalabkani waxa uu u samaysnaa qaabka shimbir yar oo inta biyaha la dhex dhigo kadib biya ay ku fadhido intay soo nuugto afka ka soo deynaysa liid yar oo biyo ah. Khabiirkan Muslimka ahi waxa kale oo isla xilliyadaa ikhtiraacay qalab kale oo aad uga muhiimsan ugana faa’ido badan kan hore oo aan hortii la aqoonin isagana. Qalabkaas oo sida daynabada hadda la isticmaalo awood u leh in uu biyo xaddi badan oo si awood leh u boodaya ka soo tuuro ceelka ama goobta kale ee biyuhu ku jiraan ee lagu rakibo.

Qalabkan waxaa lo oadeegsaday waraabka iyo in biyaha meel laga qaado oo meel kale la gaadhsiiyo. Wax yaabah sida weyn looga faa’idaystayna waxaa ka mid ahaa waraabka biyaha iyo markii dambe oo siyaabo kala duwan loo sii casriyeeyey si biyaha iyo waraabka loogu isticmaalo. Dabayaaqadii qarniyadii dhexe ayaa ay majaladdu sheegtay in Yurub ay ka faa’idaysatay aragtida cilmi ee Aljazri, iyada oo inta ay qalabkiisii sii horumarisay uga faa’idaysatay in biyaha lagu waraabiyo dhul beereed kala fog, iyo in biyaha la gaadhsiiyo taagagga iyo dhulka buuraleyda ah ee looga baahan yahay, waxa kale oo ay khubarada Yurub cilmiga Aljazri ka soo dheegteen farsamada casriga ah ee biyo gelinta magaalooyinka ee ah isticmaalka qasabadaha.

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