Qodobkii Sagaalaad Ee Heshiiskii Istabuul: Prof Yuusuf Goodir Maxamed

Published on Jan 30 2014 // Columnists, Warar

Picture1Heshiiskii Istanbuul qodobkiisa sagaalaad wuxuu taabtay sababta saldhiga u ah gooni isutaaga Somaliland oo ah xasuuqii dhacay dabayaaqaddii sideetanaadkii. Qaylo dheer ayaa laga muujiyay nuxurka erayga tiir dhexaadka u ah qodobkaas oo afka qalaad ku qoraa, (atrocities). Sida caadiga ah maadooyinku (the disciplines) waxay adeegsadaan erayo macnahoodii luqadeed xambaarsan. Sidaas oo ay tahay mid waliba dhinac ayay u jiidataa eraygaa, oo waxaa ku dhabowda odhaahdii ahayd hadal waa mergi. Tusaale ahaan, erayga dheelitiran (equilibrium) waxaa adeegsada Fiisigiska, iyo dhaqaalaha ugu yaraan oo labaduba u jeedaan xoog (force). Fiisigisku wuxuu u jeedaa xoogii aynu naqaanay, halka dhaqaaluhu u jeedo xoog aan muuqan oo aan muruqyaddu dareemi karin. 

Sida qaamuuska Oxford u macneeyay erayga (atrocities) oo wadar ah, waa cadowtinimo daran,( an extremely wicked or cruel act) – taas oo la imanaysa dhaawac jidhka ah. Marka sidaas loo eego waxaa laynoo aqoonsaday dad woxoogaa dhibaato ahi gaadhay. Hadaba dhibaatada aynu tirsanayno iyo heshiiskuba waxay ku arooraan xeerka caalamiga, oo qeexaya erayadda dembiyadda dagaaalku ku duugan yihiin. Dunida taariikhdeedu waxay u badnayd mid lagu kala adkaado, xeerkuna wuxuu ahaa qolo iyo dadnimadeed. Dagaaladdii waawaynaa ee dunida ayaa loo arkay in halis la geli karo waayo hubka wax gumaada iyo weliba xadgudub yadda oo samayn wayn yeeshay.

Taariikhda maxkamadaynta iyo dembiyadda dagaalku waxay ku sinayd dagaalkii labaad aduunka, markii maxkamad la geeyay madaxdii Jarmalka magaaladda Nuremberg bishii Octoobar, 1946. Maxkamadaas oo la yidhaahdo Maxkamadda Caalamiga ee Mulateriga (International Military tribunal (IMT)), waxaa dhawaan ku soo biirtay Maxmadda Caalamiga ee Dembiyadda (ICC) ee fadhigeedu yahay Hague.  Guud ahaanse, erayadda dembiyadda dagaalka waxaa lagu xusay, wareegtada loo yaqaan, (Rome Statute), oo lagu qeexay awooda ay ka hawl geli karto maxkamadaasi, kuwaas oo noqonaya kuwa loo aqoon saday dembiyadda ay ka mid yihiin:  xadgudubka genasaydhka (the crime of genocide); xadgudubyadda loo gaysto aadamah (crimes against humanity); xadgudubyadda dagaalka (war crimes); iyo xadgudubka duulaanka (the crime of aggression.) 

Mar Qaramada Midoobay u diyaar garoobaysay gebegebedii shirkii lagu xakamaynayay Heshiiska ka Ganacsiga Hubka (the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)) sanadkii tegay, ayaa hay’adda u dooda Xuquuqda Aadamaha ee Amnesty International cod satay in heshiiska lagu daro … “No state will authorize arms transfers where such a transfer would aid or assist in the comission of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or a consistent pattern of violations of international human rights law constituting crimes under international law – such as extrajudicial executions, enforced disappearances and torture.”

Sida ka muuqata tilmaamahaas kuma hayno eraygii aynu baadidoonkiisa ahayn ee cadaawadda (atrocity.) Adeegsiga eraygaasi wuxuu ka soo galaa qotomadda sharciga laba meelood, ka hore waxaa ku lamaan erayga (mass), oo isku noqonaya (mass atrocities.) Aynu eegno meelaha uu ku soo arooray: qoraal (paper) ay soo bandhigtay, 2010  hay’ad la yidhaahdo, Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research, erayga waxay u xustay sidan … “ A clear and well-informed understanding of the Holocaust, the paradigmatic genocide, may help educators and students understand other genocides, mass atrocities, and human rights violations.” Macnaha loo jeedo aan dib u yara dhigo.

Meel kale oo lagu xusay labada eray oo is wata waa Matxaf Maraykanka ku yaal oo loo huray Xasuuqii Xisbigii Nasigu u gaystay Yuhuuda, “Now well established as the legal foundation for civilian protection against mass atrocities, two categories of international law that seek to criminalize genocide and crimes against humanity were developed in response to World War II and the Holocaust.” Aynu u gudubno, 

Mar kale ayay qoraalka sare ee “Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research,” ay xustay … “In popular discourse, from media debates to everyday discussions, a number of terms relating to mass atrocities – crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide, and, Holocaust – are frequently used interchangeably, sometimes giving the impression that they have the same meaning. Although these terms are often mentioned in the same context and, indeed, can be related, they each have very distinct and specific meanings.

Xuska ugu horeeya waxaynu ka fahmaynaa in –mass atrocities- uu yahay dembi ka mid ah kuwa lagu gaysto dagaaladda. Laakiin, labada danbe way ka macno balaadhan yihiin. Tusaale ahaan, xuska masxafku wuxuu tilmaamayaa in maxkamduhu ka samaysmeen, dembiyo eray bixintoodu tahay –mass atrocities- ogow in maxkamadahaasi fuliyeen, kuwii Nasiga iyo Ruwanda iwm. Qoraalka labaadna wuxuu sii badhitaarayaa, sida uu u yaal, -mass atrocities- waxaa ka farcamaya dhamaan qodobaddii maxkamadda dembiyaddu ka samaysantay.

Macnaha labaad ee erayga loo adeegsadaa waa mid baahsan oo keli ah -atrocity- tusaale ahaan, -The Civil-Military Fusion Centre (CFC)- oo ah xarun cilmiga iyo eray bixinta laysku waydaarsado, -atrocity crimes- waxay ku macnaysay in ay ka farcamaan, afartii dembi ee aynu soo sheegnay in Maxkamadda Dembiyadda ee Caalamigu ka aas aasantay. Dhinac kalena aas aaskii Maxkamadda Dembiyadda Caalamiga ah hordheceeda waxaa gundhig looga dhigay erayga –atrocity- “… during this century millions of children, women and men have been victims of unimaginable atrocities that deeply shock the conscience of humanity.”  Qoraalka International Review of the Red Cross, Volume 91 Number 875 September 2009, waxaa lagu xusay in dembiyaddii Nasigu gaystay ahaayeen -atrocities- “Of course, it would take a true optimist to believe that the existence of a civilians’ convention during World War II would have prevented the worse Nazi atrocities (such as the Holocaust), as well as those committed by Japan, from occurring, but it would at least have given the ICRC more of a standing to intervene.” 

Arinta xiisaha lihi waxa weeye eray kale oo aad loo adeegsado waa –genocide- markii ugu horaysay waxaa soo giringiriyay ama badka soo dhigay (coined)  nin la odhon jiray Raphael Lemkin 1943, oo Yuhuudi ah oo sharciga bartay, diiqna kaga baxsaday xasuuqii Nasiga, halkaas oo 49 ka mid ah qoyskiisii aanu dib u arag, wadanka Poland.  Macnaha uu u dhigay eraygaasi waa mid lagu qayd iyo qoor tolay durifihii ay Yuhuudu kala kulmeen Nasiga. Ilaa maantadana waxa taagan dood odhonaysa in eraygaas la siin karo xasuuq kasta oo dunida ka dhaca. Sida jirtaba maxkamadihii Dembiyadda dagaalka ee Ruwanda (ICTR)  ee Akayesu,iyo tii kale ee Yuguslaafiya  (ICTY) ee  Jelisic, waxay adeegsadeen erayga “genocide,”

Halkaas waxaynu ku gunaanadnay aragtida kala duwanayd ee aynu ka qaadanay erayga –atrocities- oo gundhig u ahaa qodobka sagaalaad ee heshiiskii Istanbuul. Halkana aan ku qiro in eraygaasi ahaa mid dhaxal gal ah madaxdii Somaliland ee shirkaa joogtay haleeleen. Shakhsiyan waan diidanahay in reer Soomaaliya inagu lug darsadaan qayb qodobka sagaalaad ka mid ah, oo ay xaajadu noqoto “curadadiiba loo soo dhigayoo kaygiina kab baa ka luntay.” Runtii ma aha in aynu la wadaagno dhibaatooyinkii uu Siyaad Barre gaadhsiiyay, waayo, isku miisaan ma aha. Warse wuxuu ka joogaa marka aynu ka wada hadalo wixii dhacay. Madaxda Somaliland ha fogaadaan erayga “walaalahayaga Soomaaliyeed,” iyo wixii uu cagaha ku jiito.

Sharciyadda aynu ka soo hadalay iyo eray bixinta la siiyayba waxaa haga dhacdada ama taariikhda, sidaas daraadeed, eray bixin kasta oo laysku raaco ha saxsanaato ama ha khaldanaatee waxaa gundhig u ah, maxaa dhacay?  Dawladda Somaliland-na waa in ay ka diyaar garowdo tilmaan ka bixinta wixii dhacay. Laguna maal geliyo gudida hore loogu qaybiyay ee Xasuuqa.

Ygoodir2008@hotmail.com

 

comment closed

Subscribe to our RSS Feed! Follow us on Facebook! Follow us on Twitter! Visit our LinkedIn Profile!